Coronavirus : les excédents laitiers européens menacent les producteurs d’Afrique de l’Ouest

Afin de freiner la chute des cours, l’Union européenne stocke de la poudre de lait dont l’Afrique est un débouché important.

Avec la restauration collective à l’arrêt, les restaurants et fast-food fermés, les matières premières agricoles s’entassent faute de débouchés, explique l’AFP. Il y aurait ainsi 450 000 tonnes de pommes de terre en surplus rien qu’en France. Autre secteur particulièrement tendu, celui de l’industrie laitière. Les vaches produisent toujours, coronavirus ou pas. Mais le lait ne trouve plus preneur et ce, dans un contexte de surproduction structurelle. Avec la fermeture de l’hôtellerie et de la restauration, le secteur a perdu entre 10 et 20% de ses débouchés, selon l’Union européenne. 

Poudre de lait

Des contrats sont aussi annulés ou reportés dans l’attente de prix encore plus bas. Beurre et fromage ne suffisent plus à absorber la production (environ 160 millions de tonnes en 2019), et comme à chaque crise, l’Union européenne fait appel au stockage en poudre du lait.

Une aide de 5,11 euros la tonne de poudre de lait est accordée pour une période de stockage de 90 à 180 jours. A cela s’ajoute une aide journalière de 11 centimes pour les frais de stockage. Tout cela devrait permettre d’enrayer ou au moins de freiner la baisse des prix du lait sur le marché européen.

Le danger du déstockage

Mais comme le fait remarquer le CCFD« qui dit stockage dit déstockage ». Si l’on se fie aux durées annoncées, l’horizon du déstockage est proche. Dans six mois, le marché sera saturé. Et l’ONG alerte sur l’effondrement des cours que le phénomène va générer. Cela « favorisera les exportations de poudres de lait bon marché, à un prix significativement inférieur au coût de revient des producteurs locaux, en particulier vers l’Afrique de l’Ouest », prévient le CCFD.

Une filière laitière ouest-africaine qui n’est pourtant pas au mieux de sa forme. La collecte du lait est très impactée par l’épidémie en raison des limitations imposées aux déplacements par les Etats. Les laiteries ferment ou réduisent leur production, car elles sont implantées en ville et ne reçoivent plus la matière première. Et évidemment, les petits producteurs sont les premiers touchés.

Des petits producteurs menacés

Hindatou Amadou est la responsable de l’Association pour la promotion de l’élevage au Sahel et en savane (APESS), au Burkina Faso. En 2017, elle dressait le tableau des exploitations familiales dans son pays. « Près des deux tiers (63 %) sont déficitaires, c’est-à-dire qu’elles couvrent moins de 11 mois de besoins alimentaires de la famille. 10% sont considérés en équilibre précaire, les besoins sont couverts entre 11 et 13 mois. »

Dans toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest, la production locale, bien que soutenue, se heurte à la concurrence de l’industrie laitière qui travaille avec du lait en poudre. Selon les ONG, le prix de ce lait serait moitié moins cher que le lait local. 800 contre 1500 francs CFA, soit 1,22 contre 2,29 euros le litre.

Concurrence déloyale

Une situation qui profite à l’Europe et à ses grands groupes laitiers. Entre 2018 et 2019, les exportations de poudre de lait de l’Union en Afrique de l’Ouest ont augmenté de 19%, et elles représentent aujourd’hui 20% des exportations mondiales de l’UE, selon les associations.

Selon l’association ouest-africaine « Mon lait est local », les importations de poudre de lait dans la sous-région étaient estimées à 500 milliards de CFA en 2015. 760 millions d’euros.

La poudre de lait stockée en Europe en ces temps d’épidémie sera fatalement exportée en Afrique où se trouve la demande. Un adversaire redoutable pour les petits producteurs locaux.

Source : France info.fr

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