Covid : les jeunes adultes risquent toujours de subir de graves lésions organiques – étude

 Covid : les jeunes adultes risquent toujours de subir de graves lésions organiques – étude

Les jeunes adultes admis à l’hôpital pour un traitement par Covid sont presque aussi susceptibles de souffrir de complications que ceux de plus de 50 ans, selon une étude.

Quatre sur dix des personnes âgées de 19 à 49 ans ont développé des problèmes au niveau des reins, des poumons ou d’autres organes pendant leur traitement.

La recherche a porté sur 73 197 adultes de tous âges dans 302 hôpitaux britanniques lors de la première vague de Covid en 2020.

“Le message est que ce n’est pas seulement une maladie des personnes âgées et fragiles”, explique le Pr Calum Semple, qui a dirigé les travaux.

“Les données renforcent le fait que Covid n’est pas la grippe et que nous voyons même de jeunes adultes venir à l’hôpital souffrir de complications importantes, dont certaines nécessiteront un suivi plus poussé et potentiellement d’autres traitements à l’avenir.”

L’étude, menée par des chercheurs de sept universités britanniques, le ministère de la Santé et des Soins sociaux et Public Health England, a examiné le nombre de “complications” chez les personnes nécessitant un traitement hospitalier pour le Covid-19, défini comme un diagnostic médical spécifique à un organe.

Dans l’ensemble, environ la moitié des patients adultes ont souffert d’au moins une complication pendant leur séjour à l’hôpital. La plus fréquente était une lésion rénale, suivie d’une lésion pulmonaire et cardiaque.

Les taux les plus élevés ont été enregistrés chez les personnes de plus de 50 ans, 51 % d’entre elles ayant signalé au moins un problème.

Mais ils étaient également “très fréquents” dans les groupes d’âge plus jeunes. Quelque 37 % des personnes âgées de 30 à 39 ans et 44 % des personnes âgées de 40 à 49 ans ont présenté au moins une complication enregistrée par les infirmières et les étudiants en médecine participant à l’étude.

Les médecins ne sont pas encore certains de la manière dont une maladie Covid grave peut provoquer des lésions organiques, mais on pense que dans certains cas, le système immunitaire de l’organisme peut déclencher une réaction inflammatoire et endommager les tissus sains.

Paul Godfrey, de Frinton dans l’Essex, a développé Covid en mars 2020 après avoir souffert de ce qu’il pensait être une infection thoracique.

Paul, qui avait 31 ans au moment du diagnostic et souffre d’une bronchectasie, a déclaré : “Il n’y a aucun doute à ce sujet – le personnel du NHS qui s’est occupé de moi m’a sauvé la vie. Sans eux, je ne serais pas là aujourd’hui”.

Paul Godfrey reçoit un traitement à l'hôpital
Paul Godfrey doit toujours faire face aux dommages causés par le Covid sur son corps1px transparent line

L’étude, publiée dans la revue médicale The Lancet, a révélé que les personnes souffrant d’affections préexistantes étaient plus susceptibles de signaler des complications, mais que le risque était élevé même chez les personnes jeunes et en bonne santé.

‘La pire expérience de ma vie’

Paul a reçu un diagnostic de pneumonie à l’hôpital de Colchester et on lui a dit que la moitié inférieure de ses deux poumons s’était affaissée.

Il a évité de justesse d’être placé dans un coma artificiel et a passé deux semaines dans un service Covid avant de pouvoir rentrer chez lui en fauteuil roulant.

L’étude a montré que 13 % des 19-29 ans et 17 % des 30-39 ans hospitalisés dans un service Covid n’étaient pas en mesure de s’occuper d’eux-mêmes à leur sortie de l’hôpital et devaient compter sur leurs amis et leur famille.

“C’était la pire expérience de ma vie et j’y suis encore confronté 18 mois plus tard”, a déclaré Paul, qui continue de souffrir d’une fatigue extrême et d’un essoufflement causés par sa maladie.

“Je ne sais pas vraiment quels sont les dommages subis par mon corps, alors je prie pour que je redevienne ce que j’étais.”

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Le Covid et les jeunes adultes

Lit d'hôpital

CRÉDIT PHOTO,GETTY IMAGES

L’âge est le principal facteur déterminant d’une infection grave par le Covid.

Sur les 406 687 personnes hospitalisées pour cette maladie en Angleterre depuis le début de la pandémie, 62 % avaient plus de 65 ans.

Il reste donc 155 866 autres personnes de moins de 65 ans qui ont dû être hospitalisées depuis février 2020.

Les taux de vaccination plus élevés dans la population âgée et vulnérable signifient que l’âge moyen des personnes hospitalisées pour la maladie a diminué.

Au cours de la semaine qui s’est achevée le 4 juillet, 17 personnes de plus de 85 ans ont été hospitalisées pour le Covid en Angleterre, contre 478 personnes âgées de 25 à 44 ans.

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La recherche a été menée lors de la première vague de la pandémie entre le 17 janvier et le 4 août 2020 – avant que les vaccins ne soient disponibles et que de nouvelles variantes du virus n’aient été détectées.

Les auteurs ont déclaré que les données suggéraient que les personnes présentant des symptômes plus graves de Covid à l’admission à l’hôpital étaient plus susceptibles de souffrir de graves problèmes de santé, ce qui montre l’importance des vaccins pour réduire la gravité de la maladie lors de cette dernière vague.

L’étude n’a été conçue que pour examiner les complications à court terme pendant un séjour à l’hôpital, mais il semble que certaines lésions organiques puissent persister, devenant une forme de ce que l’on appelle la Covid longue.

“Nous savons, grâce à d’autres maladies infectieuses, que ce genre de problèmes au niveau des reins ou du cœur peut se transformer en complications à plus long terme”, a déclaré le Dr Annemarie Docherty, maître de conférences clinique à l’Université d’Édimbourg et consultante en médecine de soins intensifs.

“Je pense qu’il est raisonnable de s’attendre à ce qu’il en soit de même avec le Covid-19”.

Source : BBC Afrique

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